- Problem formulation - which topic or field is being examined and what are the component issues?
- Literature search - finding materials relevant to the subject explored
- Data evaluation - determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic
- Analysis and interpretations - discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature
START by exploring Library OneSearch (includes books, ebooks, academic journals, newspapers)
*Try search terms like adhd, children, "drug treatment" and use facets on left to narrow by source type - choose " Limit to articles from scholarly publications, including peer-review"
For research databases try suggested databases from OneSearch or BROWSE SUBJECT LIST of DATABASES.
- CINAHL Plus with Full-Text -comprehensive and highly-authoritative database for research in nursing and health sciences
- Cochrane Library - collection of databases that contain evidence for healthcare decision-making. Includes systematic review abstracts, technology assessments, economic evaluations and individual clinical trials.
- ERIC via ProQuest -resources in education including journal articles from research/scholarly and practitioner literature
- Natural Medicines - peer-reviewed, authoritative source for information on complementary and integrative therapies. It is composed of 10 different databases: Herbs, Supplements, & Functional Foods, Health & Wellness, Comparative Effectiveness, Charts & Tables, Medical Conditions, Sports Medicine, Genomics & Proteomics, Environment & Global Health, and Animal Health.
- PubMed - The National Library of Medicine's free interface for MEDLINE the premier database for biomedical journal citations
- PsycINFO - literature in psychology and related disciplines such as psychiatry, education, business, medicine, nursing, pharmacology, law, linguistics, and social work.
- Social Sciences Full Text
Includes full-text articles from over 300 journals, covering concepts, theories and methods from both applied and theoretical aspects of the social sciences: 1983 - present. How to export to RefWorks
- Social Work Abstracts
Indexes more than 450 social work and human services journals. Coverage: 1965 to present. How to export to RefWorks
- Provenance -- what are the author's credentials? Are the author's arguments supported by evidence [e.g. primary historical material, case studies, narratives, statistics, recent scientific findings]?
- Methodology -- were the techniques used to identify, gather, and analyze the data appropriate to addressing the research problem? Was the sample size appropriate? Were the results effectively interpreted and reported?
- Objectivity -- is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point?
- Persuasiveness -- which of the author's theses are most convincing or least convincing?
- Value -- are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject?
Figure from: Greenhalgh, T. (1997). How to read a paper. Papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses). BMJ, 315, 672-675.
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention - National Center for Health Statistics
- HealthData.gov -a federal government website managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
- World Health Organization
Evaluating literature chart (blank Windows doc)
Analyzing Sources & Literature Review tutorials:
Essential Elements of a Literature Review guide (UC Santa Cuz)
Conducting Literature Reviews - detailed guide (USC)
Critically Analyzing Information Sources (Cornell Libraries)
Citation Style Guides:APA Formating and Style Guide with examples (by Owl at Purdue)