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LIBRARY GUIDE TO NRS 3012 - Research for Evidence-Based Practice

PICO example
Asking is fundamental to the evidence-based decision-making process. A well-built question includes four parts, referred to as PICO that identify the patient problem or population (P), intervention (I), comparison (C) and outcome (O).

Example: How do alternative breast cancer treatments improve the quality of life for young adult females?
P = young adult females with breast cancer 
I  =  alternative therapies 
C = patients who don't use alternative therapies 
O = quality of life improvement
Library Contact
Picture: Mariela Hristova

Mariela Hristova
Associate Professor, Nursing Librarian

Available for research consultations by appointment. Consultations are virtual in Google Meet.

Schedule an Appointment

Searching for Literature
Suggested nursing databases with evidence-based literature:

Restricted to OU students, faculty, and staff CINAHL Complete is a comprehensive and highly-authoritative database for research in nursing and health sciences. How to Export to Refworks

Restricted to OU students, faculty, and staff Cochrane Library A collection of databases that contain evidence for healthcare decision-making. Includes systematic review abstracts, technology assessments, economic evaluations and individual clinical trials.

Unrestricted Resource PubMed (MEDLINE) The National Library of Medicine's free interface for MEDLINE, the premier database for biomedical journal citations. How to export to RefWorks

View entire list of Nursing related databases
Steps of a Literature Review
  • Problem formulation - which topic or field is being examined and what are the component issues?
  • Literature search - finding materials relevant to the subject explored
  • Data evaluation - determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic
  • Analysis and interpretations - discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature
Evidence-Based Practice Steps (EBP)
EBP Steps:
  1. Problem Identification: Converting information needs into an answerable question
  2. Finding the Evidence: Finding, with maximum efficiency, the best evidence with which to answer the question
  3. Critique: Determining the merit, feasibility and utility of evidence
  4. Summarize the Evidence: Combining findings from all evidence to make a practice recommendation
  5. Application to Practice: Incorporating the recommendation into a clinical setting or organization
  6. Evaluation – Determining the effective of the practice over time
Additional Tools and Help


Refworks allows you to create a personal database of references and automatically generate formatted bibliographies for your projects.

APA 7th Edition
APA 7 style guide with examples
Detailed guide from OWL-Purdue

Sample APA paper
Shows formatting of headers, etc...

APA Manual 
Available for shared use only in Kresge Library
Writing Help

The Writing Center
They will assist you with every stage of the writing process. Consultations are in demand, so plan ahead when scheduling an appointment.

Technology Help

Technology Help Desk
Kresge Library houses a technology help desk, where tech mentors can assist you with using Word, Powerpoint, and other programs. They can also help you troubleshoot technology-related challenges.

Original Author
This guide was originally created by Julia Rodriguez, Associate Professor at Kresge Library.

Julia Rodriguez is currently the Health Sciences and Scholarly Communications Librarian. From 2008 to 2020, her professional focus also included serving as the nursing librarian and this content is the result of that work.


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