- Problem formulation - which topic or field is being examined and what are the component issues?
- Literature search - finding materials relevant to the subject explored
- Data evaluation - determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic
- Analysis and interpretations - discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature
A "well-built" question should include four parts, referred to as PICO that identify the patient problem or population (P), intervention (I), comparison (C) and outcome(s) (O).
Example: How do alternative breast cancer treatments improve the quality of life for young adult females?
P= young adult females with breast cancer
I = alternative therapies
C= patients who don't use alternative therapies
O= quality of life improvement
CINAHL Complete is a comprehensive and highly-authoritative database for research in nursing and health sciences. How to Export to Refworks
Cochrane Library A collection of databases that contain evidence for healthcare decision-making. Includes systematic review abstracts, technology assessments, economic evaluations and individual clinical trials.
PubMed (MEDLINE) The National Library of Medicine's free interface for MEDLINE, the premier database for biomedical journal citations. How to export to RefWorks
View entire list of Nursing related databases
Associate Professor / Nursing, Health Sciences & Scholarly Communications Librarian
If none of the time slots work for you or if there are none available, email me directly and suggest a date & time and I will do my best to accommodate you.
- Problem Identification: Converting information needs into an answerable question
- Finding the Evidence: Finding, with maximum efficiency, the best evidence with which to answer the question
- Critique: Determining the merit, feasibility and utility of evidence
- Summarize the Evidence: Combining findings from all evidence to make a practice recommendation
- Application to Practice: Incorporating the recommendation into a clinical setting or organization
- Evaluation – Determining the effective of the practice over time
Learn how to use Refworks tutorials
Finding Nursing Literature handout
Evidence-Based Practice Quick Reference Guide (Alaska Medical Library)
Evidence-Based Practice in the Health Sciences: EBP Nursing Tutorial (UIC)
Analyzing Sources & Literature Review tutorials:
Essential Elements of a Literature Review guide (UC Santa Cuz)
Conducting Literature Reviews - detailed guide (USC)